1. Family: Rhamnaceae Juss.
    1. Smythea Seem.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Asia-Tropical, Seychelles, Pacific and Asia-Temperate..

    [KBu]

    Cahen D & Utteridge T. 2018. A synopsis of the genus Smythea (Rhamnaceae). Kew Bulletin 73: 2. DOI 10.1007/S12225-017-9724-3

    Type
    Type species: Smythea pacifica Seem. (= Smythea lanceata (Tul.) Summerh.).
    Habit
    Scandent shrubs or lianas, woody, without spines
    Indumentum
    Indumentum of short to long, simple, spreading to appressed, antrorse hairs, present at least at the distal end of flowering branchlets
    Branches
    Branchlets slender, distally flexuous.
    Stipules
    Stipules linear, fugaceous, sometimes persisting to fruiting stage.
    Leaves
    Leaves simple, alternate, distichous; base asymmetrical, rounded to cuneate; apex mucronulate; margin at least obscurely crenate-serrate, serrations tipped with callosities; secondary venation pinnate, eucamptodromous to brochidodromous, 2 - 9 pairs, third order venation distinct, more or less perpendicular to primary vein; abaxial lamina surface often bearing small rounded glandular spots. Domatia common in the axils of secondary veins, tufts of hairs or pocket sometimes combined with tufts of hairs.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence fascicles in the axils of persistent leaves or arranged in racemes or panicles when leaves bearing fascicles are fugaceous.
    Flowers
    Flowers bisexual, 5-merous, perigynous, with a conical hypanthium; sepal lobes triangular, adaxially keeled with an apical protuberance; petals present, alternate with sepals, clawed, obcordate, each enclosing a stamen before anthesis; stamens 5, anthers dorsifixed, introrse; disk subpentagonal, filling the hypanthium, fleshy, glabrous, smooth or covered with cylindrical papillae; ovary hairy, half-immersed in disk, locules 2; style 2-fid.
    Fruits
    Fruits either crustaceous, usually inflated, even and symmetrical near the base, with no distinct wing-like apical appendage, or chartaceous to subcoriaceous, planar and not inflated, often twisted near the base and with a distinct-wing like apical appendage; apex with style remains forming a distinct mucro; persistent calyx attached at base of fruit; seed chamber 1, laterally compressed and elongated, externally indistinguishable from rest of fruit; seeds exalbuminous.
    Note
    2n = 24 (S bombaiensis).
    Distribution
    Paleotropics, occurring in the Seychelles, India, South-East Asia, Melanesia and Micronesia.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, Caroline Is., China South-Central, China Southeast, Fiji, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Philippines, Santa Cruz Is., Seychelles, Solomon Is., Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Vanuatu, Vietnam

    Smythea Seem. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Bonplandia (Hannover) 10: 69 (1862)

    Literature

    Kew Bulletin
    • Cahen, D. & Utteridge, T. M. A. (2017). Three new species of Ventilago (Rhamnaceae) from South-East Asia. Phytotaxa 307: 171 - 182.
    • IUCN & UNEP-WCMC (2016). The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA). Cambridge. Available from: www.protectedplanet.net (accessed: 31 March 2016).
    • Standards and Petitions Subcommittee (2016).Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Version 12. Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Subcommittee. Available from: http: //www.iucnredlist.org/documents/RedListGuidelines.pdf (accessed: 31 March 2016).
    • Wieczorek, C. & Wieczorek J. (2015). Georeferencing Calcu­lator. Version 20151221. Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California, Berkeley. Available from: http://manisnet.org/gci2.html. (accessed: 29 March 2016).
    • IUCN (2012). IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1, Second edition. IUCN, Gland and Cambridge.
    • McNeill, J., Barrie, F. R., Buck, W. R., Demoulin, V., Greuter, W., Hawksworth, D. L., Herendeen, P., Knapp, S., Marhold, K., Prado, J., Prud'homme Van Reine, W. F., Smith, G. F., Wiersama, J. H. & Turland, N. J. (eds) (2012). International Code of Nomencla­ture for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code). Regnum Veg. 154. Koeltz Scientific Books.
    • Bachman, S., Moat, J., Hill, A., de la Torre, J. & Scott, B. (2011). Supporting Red List threat assessments with GeoCAT: Geospatial Conservation Assessment Tool. ZooKeys 150: 117 - 12.
    • Beentje, H. (2010). The Kew Plant Glossary: An IllustratedDictionary of Plant Terms. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Chen, Y.-L. & Schirarend, C. (2007). Rhamnaceae. In: Z.-Y. Wu, P. H. Raven & D.-Y. Hong (eds), Flora of China 12: 115 - 168. Science Press, Beijing, and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). Checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, Edinburgh.
    • Medan, D. & Schirarend, C. (2004). Rhamnaceae. In: K. Kubitzki(ed.),The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, Vol. 6: Celastrales, Oxalidales, Rosales, Cornales, Ericales, pp. 320 - 338. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg.
    • Wieczorek, J., Guo, Q. & Hijmans, R. (2004). The point-radius method for georeferencing locality descriptions and calculating associated uncertain­ty. Int. J. Geogr. Inform. Sci. 18(8): 745 - 767.
    • Loucks, C. (2001). Southeastern Asia: Indonesia and Malay­sia. Available from: http://www.worldwildlife.org/ecoregions/im0102 (accessed: 31 March 2016).
    • Morrison, J. (2001). Indonesia: Island of Sulawesi. Available from: http://www.worldwildlife.org/ecoregions/aa0123 (accessed: 31 March 2016).
    • Olson, D. M., Dinerstein, E., Wikramanayake, E. D., Burgess, N. D., Powell, G. V. N., Underwood, E. C., D'amico, J. A., Itoua, I., Strand, H. E., Morrison, J. C., Loucks, C. J., Allnutt, T. F., Ricketts, T. H., Kura, Y., Lamoreux, J. F., Wettengel,W.W., Hedao, P. & Kassem, K. R. (2001). Terrestrial Ecoregions of the World: A New Map of Life on Earth. BioScience 51: 933 - 938.
    • Rawat,G.S.,Desai,A.,Somanathan,H.& Wikramanayake, E. D. (2001). Southern Asia: Southern India. Available from: http://www.worldwildlife.org/ecoregions/im0150 (accessed: 31 March 2016).
    • Srikosmatara, S., Round, P. D. & Wikramanayake, E.D. (2001). Southerneastern Asia: Southern Thailand. Available from: http://www.worldwildlife.org/ecoregions/im0108 (accessed: 31 March 2016).
    • Wikramanayake E.D., Boonratana,R., Rundel, P.& Aggimarangsee, N. (2001). Southeastern Asia: Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. Available from: http://www.worldwildlife.org/ecoregions/im0202 (accessed: 31 March 2016).
    • Richardson, J. E., Fay, M. F., Cronk, Q. C. B., Bowman, D. & Chase, M. W. (2000). A Phylogenetic Analysis of Rhamnaceae using rbcL and trnL-F Plastid DNA Sequences. Amer. J. Bot. 87: 1309 - 1324.
    • Stafleu, F. A. & Cowan, R. S. (1986). Taxonomic literature. A selective guide to botanical publications and collections with dates, commentaries and types. Volume VI: Sti - Vuy, Second edition. Bohn, Scheltema and Holkema, Utrecht and Antwerp.
    • Hickey, L. J. (1979). A revised classification of the architecture of dicotyledonous leaves. In: C. R. Metcalfe & L. Chalk (eds), Anatomy of the dicotyledons. Second Edition. Volume 1. Systematic anatomy of the leaf and stem, pp. 25- 39. Oxford Science Publications, Oxford.
    • Theobald, W. L., Krahulik, J. L. & Rollins, R. C. (1979). Trichome description and classification. In: C. R. Metcalfe & L. Chalk (eds), Anatomy of the dicotyledons. Second Edition. Vol. 1. Systematic anatomy of the leaf and stem,pp.40-53. Oxford Science Publications,Oxford.
    • Wilkinson, H. P. (1979). The Plant Surface (Mainly Leaf) Part IV Domatia. In: C. R. Metcalfe & L. Chalk (eds), Anatomy of the dicotyledons. Second Edition. Volume 1. Systematic anatomy of the leafand stem, pp. 132 - 140. Oxford Science Publications, Oxford.
    • Banerjee, S. P. & Mukherjee, P. K. (1970). Studies in the Rhamnaceae, III.A Taxonomic Revision of Indian Ventilagineae. Indian Forester 96: 203 - 217.
    • Banerjee, S. P. & Mukherjee, P. K. (1969). Studies in the Rhamnaceae. I. Smythea velutina (Ridl.) S. P. Ban. and P. K. Mukh. comb. nov. and description of a new varietyunder it. Bull. Bot. Surv. India 10: 251 - 253.
    • Suessenguth, K. (1953). Rhamnaceae. In: A. Engler & K. Prantl (eds), Die Naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien Zweite Auflage Band 20d: 1 - 173. Duncker and Humbolt, Berlin.
    • Summerhayes, V. S. (1931). An enumeration of the angiosperms ofthe Seychelles Archipelago. Trans. Linn. Soc. London 19(2): 261 - 299.
    • Ridley, H. N. (1930). The Dispersal of Plants Throughout the World.Reeve, London.
    • Summerhayes, V. S. (1928). New Plants from the Seychelles. Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew 1928: 389.
    • Merrill, E. D. (1925). Additions to our knowledge of the flora of Hainan. J. Arnold. Arbor. 6: 129 - 140.
    • Ridley, H. N. (1924). New Malayan Plants. J. Bot. 62: 294 - 301.
    • Lauterbach, C. (1922). Die Rhamnaceen Papuasiens. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 57: 326 - 340.
    • Ridley, H. N. (1922). Flora of the Malay Peninsula, Vol. 1: 461 - 468. L. Reeve, London.
    • Hemsley, W. B. (1916). Flora of Seychelles and Aldabra: newphanerogamia, chiefly of the Percy Sladen Trust Expedition, with some emendations in synonymy. J. Bot. 54, Suppl. II: 1 - 24.
    • Merrill, E. D. (1916). Reliquiae Robinsonianae. Philipp. J. Sci., C11: 243 - 319.
    • Schneider, C. K. (1916). Rhamnaceae. In: C. S. Sargent (ed.), Plantae Wilsonianae, An Enumeration of the Woody Plants Collected in Western China for the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. Vol. 2: 209 - 253. The University Press, Cambridge.
    • Merrill, E. D. (1909). New or Noteworthy Philippine Plants. VII. Philipp. J. Sci., C 4: 247 - 330.
    • Guppy, H. B. (1906). Observations of a naturalist in the Pacific between 1896 and 1899. Vol. 2. Plant Dispersal. Macmillan, London.
    • Schumann, K. & Lauterbach, K. (1901). Die Flora der DeutschenSchutzgebiete in der Sudsee. Verlag von Gebruder Borntraeger, Leipzig.
    • King, G. (1896). Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal Pt. 2. Nat. Hist. 65: 339 - 516.
    • Weberbauer, A. (1895). Rhamnaceae. In: A. Engler & K. Prantl (eds), Die Naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien III. Teil 5. Abteilung, pp. 393 - 427. W. Engelmann, Leipzig.
    • Pierre, L. (1894). Rhamnacees. Flore Forestiere Cochinchine, Vol. 3: t. 313 - 316. O. Doin, Paris.
    • Schumann, K. & Hollrung, M. (1889). Die Flora vonKaiser Wilhelms Land. Asher & Co., Berlin, Kommissions-Verlag.
    • Hemsley, W. B. (1887). Smythea macrocarpa Hemsl. In:J. D. Hooker (ed.), Hooker's Icon. Pl. 16: t. 1558.
    • Vidal, S. (1886). Revision de plantas vasculares Filipinas. M. Perez, Manila.
    • Baker, J. G. (1877). Flora of Mauritius and the Seychelles. L. Reeve & Co, London.
    • Scheffer, R. H. C. C. (1876). Enumeration des plantes de la Nouvelle-Guinee, avec description des especes nouvelles. Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg.1:1- 60.
    • Kurz, W. S. (1872). New Burmese Plants. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2. Nat. Hist. 41: 291 - 318.
    • Gray, A. (1862). Plantae Vitiensis Seemannianae. Remarks on the Plants collected in the Vitian or Fijian Islands by Dr. Berthold Seemann. Bonplandia 10: 34 - 37
    • Hooker, J. D. (1862). Rhamnaceae. In: G. Bentham & J. D. Hooker (eds), Genera Plantarum, vol. 1: 371 - 386. Reeve & Co., London.
    • Seemann 1862: 69
    • Seemann, B. (1862). Smythea Pacifica. Bonplandia 10: 69 - 70.
    • Miquel, F. A. W. (1861). Flora van Nederlandsch Indie, Eerste Bijvoegsel. Van der Post, Amsterdam and van der Post Jr., Utrecht.
    • Seemann, B. (1861). Plantae Vitienses. Bonplandia 9: 253 - 262.
    • Tulasne, L. R. (1857). Florae Madagascariensis Rhamneae. Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot.Ser.4,8:120- 126.
    • Dalzell, N. A. (1851). Contributions to the Botany of Western India. Hooker's J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 3: 33 - 39.
    • Blume, C. L. von. (1826). Bijdragen tot de Flora van Nederlandsch Indie, vol. 17: 1144. Ter Lands Drukkerij, Batavia.

    Sources

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0