1. Family: Aristolochiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Aristolochia L.
      1. Aristolochia albida Duch.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa to Namibia, Comoros, Madagascar.

    [FWTA]

    Aristolochiaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

    Habit
    Stems glabrous, twining on other plants
    Flowers
    Flowers blackish-purple.
    [FZ]

    Aristolochiaceae, B.L. Stannard. Flora Zambesiaca 9:2. 1997

    Habit
    Creeping or climbing (twining) perennial herb with annual stems from a woody rootstock, pale green to glaucous.
    Stem
    Stems to 3(11) m long, sometimes very slender, sulcate (in dried state), pubescent to glabrous, sometimes tinged purplish at the nodes.
    Leaves
    Leaves 2–20 ? 1.5–15 cm, ovate to ovate-oblong or triangular, rounded to obtuse or acute and ± mucronulate at the apex, cordate or cordate-auriculate with a deep sinus at the base, or leaves 3-lobed with basal lobes strongly patent; terminal lobe much larger than the lateral lobes, 1.5–7(10) ? 0.6–3(4) cm, lanceolate to ± ovate; lateral lobes 0.5–2(3) cm in diameter, rotund; lamina glabrous or somewhat puberulous on both surfaces particularly on the veins and around the margins, with 3–7 principal veins from base, the veins and reticulation prominent on the lower surface; petioles 3–40 mm long, pubescent to glabrous; pseudostipules leaf-like, 5–20 ? 2.5–14 mm, rotund to ovate or oblong, rounded to subacute sometimes mucronate at the apex, cordate at the base, glabrous or minutely puberulous mainly on veins and margins.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary, racemose, 2–30(40) cm long, usually elongate, 2–9(15)-flowered; rhachis pubescent to glabrous; bracts conspicuous, persistent, 0.3–4 ? 0.2–3 cm, ovate to rotund, rounded to acute and sometimes mucronate at the apex, rounded to cordate and ± amplexicaul at the base, usually glabrous, less often pubescent to minutely puberulous.
    Flowers
    Flowers, including pedicels and ovary, 0.6–3(4) cm long, glabrous or pubescent, ovary glabrous.
    Perianth
    Perianth glabrous: constricted part below the utricle 0.5–5 mm long; inflated part (utricle) 2–8 mm in diameter, oblong-ellipsoid to subglobose; tube 2.5–20 ? 0.75–2.5 mm, straight, cylindrical, dilated at apex, greyish to purplish-green; limb 8–40 ? 3–20 mm, subrotund, oblong-elliptic, elliptic, obovate or panduriform, hairy towards the base, dark purple to purplish-black or brown, sometimes shading to creamy-white at the base.
    Gynostemium
    Gynostemium 2–3.5 mm tall, anthers 6.
    Fruits
    Fruit a capsule, 2–5 ? 1–3 cm, oblong-cylindrical to obpyriform, 6-ribbed, apex rounded, base attenuate into a stipe 1–4 cm long; when ripe the pendulous capsule and stipe split longitudinally into 6 segments which remain joined to the pedicel by the thread-like elements of the stipe, the segments separating widely about the middle while remaining joined at the capsule apex, the whole resembling an inverted “parachute”.
    Seeds
    Seeds 6–15 ? 4–10 mm, triangular, flat, surrounded by a broad papery wing, finely verrucose on one side, the other side finely verrucose with a cuneate, winged raphe down the centre, sometimes ± covering the side.
    [FTEA]

    Aristolochiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1986

    Habit
    Perennial unpleasantly smelling climber, sometimes subshrubby and woody, 1–3(–10) m. long, with green often glaucous stems sometimes tinged purple at the nodes, glabrous, grooved when dry.
    Leaves
    Leaves ovate to ovate-triangular, 2.5–20 cm. long, 1.3–14.5 cm. wide, obtuse to acute at the apex, ± cordate at the base, the undersurface of the mature leaves with a characteristic very fine raised reticulation of veins, either glabrous or with very dense microhairs; petioles 1.5–5.5 cm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences mostly elongate, (2–)6–14–flowered, 6–15 cm. long, the flowers mostly well spaced; bracts conspicuous and persistent, ovate, elliptic or round, 0.7–3.5 cm. long, 0.7–3 cm. wide, acute to quite rounded at apex, sometimes distinctly mucronate; pedicels 1–2 cm. long.
    Perianth
    Perianth with basal oblong-ovoid to globose swollen part green, 5–8 mm. long; tube greenish, slender, 1–1.8 cm. long, inside often yellowish; limb blackish purple or chocolate but greenish or white at base, very variable, elliptic, narrowly ovate-elliptic to oblong or even ± round or oblong-panduriform, 1.5–3.2(–3.5) cm. long, 0.5–2 cm. wide, mostly hairy inside at base.
    Anthers
    Anthers 6.
    Fruits
    Fruit at length blue or blue-black, oblong-obpyriform, 2.5–5(–6) cm. long, 1–3 cm. wide, rounded at apex and attenuate at base into ± 2–3(–5) cm. long stipe.
    Seeds
    Seeds pale, flat, triangular, 1–1.3 cm. long, 0.9–1 cm. wide, broadly winged, finely rugulose on one face, with winged and grooved broad raphe on the other.
    Figures
    Fig. 2
    Habitat
    Forest grassland clearings and edges, riverine forest, etc., scrub and bushland, also as a weed in waste places and sisal plantations; 0–1500 m.
    Distribution
    K4 K7 P T3 T4 T6 T7 T8 Z

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sudan, Tanzania, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Aristolochia albida Duch. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2008 Luckow, M. [4410], Madagascar K000449614
    Aug 16, 1996 Kirk, J. [s.n.], Mozambique K000350274 Unknown type material
    Aug 16, 1996 Pervillé, M. [637], Madagascar K000350280
    Aug 16, 1991 Bojer, W. [s.n.], Mauritius K000350278
    Jan 12, 1988 Cameron, K.J. [2/191], Malawi K000350276 Unknown type material
    Jan 12, 1988 Baines, T. [s.n.], South Africa K000350272 holotype
    Jan 12, 1988 Peters, W. [s.n.], Mozambique K000350273 Unknown type material
    Madagascar K000350279
    Kirk, J. [s.n.], Mozambique K000350275 Unknown type material
    Mozambique K000379554
    Peters, W. [s.n.], Mozambique K000379555
    Festo et al. [2673], Kenya K000449609
    Milne-Redhead, E. [9353], Tanzania Aristolochia petersiana 23758.000
    Drummond, R.B. [1822], Tanzania Aristolochia petersiana 21963.000
    Faulkner, H. [3,198], Tanzania Aristolochia petersiana 29455.000
    Adamson, J. [592], Kenya Aristolochia petersiana 25922.000
    van Someren, L.G., Kenya Aristolochia petersiana 21964.000
    Dewevre, A. [s.n.], Congo, DRC Aristolochia dewevrei K000350262

    First published in Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 4, 2: 75 (1854)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Pope, G.V. (ed.) (1997). Flora Zambesiaca 9(2): 1-64. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Chev. Fl. Viv. 1: 131.
    • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 137
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Keay, Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 81 (1954).
    • A. Chev., Fl. Viv. Afr. Occ. Franç. 1: 131 (1938).
    • Peter, Flora von Deutsch-Ostafrika 2: 184 (1932).
    • Bak. & Wright in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 137 (1909).
    • Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. Welw. 1: 911 (1900).
    • Duchartre in DC., Prodr. 15(1): 483 (1864).
    • Duchartre in Ann. Sci. Nat., sér. 4,2: 75 (1854)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0