1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Oplismenus P.Beauv.
      1. Oplismenus undulatifolius (Ard.) P.Beauv.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Central & S. Europe to Iran, Cameroon, Ethiopia to S. Africa, W. Indian Ocean, Central & S. China to Japan and Tropical Asia, E. Australia.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial. Culms prostrate; 15-50 cm long; rooting from lower nodes. Culm-internodes distally pilose. Leaf-sheaths pilose. Ligule a ciliate membrane. Leaf-blade base asymmetrical. Leaf-blades lanceolate, or ovate; 1-7 cm long; 4-15 mm wide. Leaf-blade venation with obscure cross veins. Leaf-blade surface hispid; sparsely hairy; hairy on both sides. Leaf-blade apex acuminate, or acute (bluntly).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 5-11; borne along a central axis; cuneate; unilateral; 0.5-1.5 cm long; bearing few fertile spikelets; bearing 2-6 fertile spikelets on each (in a fascicle). Central inflorescence axis 2-14 cm long; pilose. Rhachis angular; glabrous on surface, or pilose on surface. Spikelet packing crowded. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile and pedicelled; 2 in the cluster; subequal, or the lower smaller. Pedicels oblong.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 2.5-4 mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 2.5-4 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes similar, or dissimilar; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 1 length of upper glume; 0.5-0.75 length of spikelet; herbaceous; 1-keeled; 5 -veined. Lower glume surface glabrous, or pubescent. Lower glume apex acute; awned; 1 -awned. Lower glume awn 7-14 mm long; viscid. Upper glume ovate; herbaceous; 1-keeled; 5-7 -veined. Upper glume surface glabrous, or pubescent. Upper glume apex obtuse; muticous, or awned. Upper glume awn 0-4 mm long.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; with palea, or without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 1-keeled; 7-11 -veined; glabrous, or pubescent; emarginate; mucronate. Fertile lemma oblong; dorsally compressed; 2-2.5 mm long; coriaceous; shiny; without keel; 7 -veined. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex acute; laterally pinched. Palea involute; coriaceous; without keels.
    Distribution
    Europe: central, southwestern, and southeastern. Africa: west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Caucasus, western Asia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India and Malesia. Australasia: Australia. North America: south-central USA and southeast . South America: Caribbean.
    Reference
    Paniceae. SAR 2002.
    Diagnostic
    Spikelet pairs 0.5-2mm apart.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Habit
    Trailing perennial with narrowly lanceolate to narrowly ovate leaf laminae.
    Culms
    Culms 15–50 cm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes reduced to cuneate fascicles without evident rhachis, or rarely the lowermost longer.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 2.5–4 mm. long, glabrous to sparsely pubescent; awns smooth and sticky, the longest in each fascicle 7–14 mm.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Perennial with trailing culms 15–50 cm. long.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades narrowly lanceolate to narrowly ovate, 1–7 cm. long, 4–15 mm. wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence 2–8 cm. long, comprising 5–11 cuneate fascicles of 2–6 spikelets, or rarely the lowermost forming a short raceme.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets lanceolate, 2.5–4 mm. long, glabrous to sparsely pubescent; glumes with smooth viscid awns, the longest in each fascicle 7–14 mm. long.
    Habitat
    In forest shade; (0)–1400–2500 m.
    Distribution
    K3 K4 K7 T1 T3 T6 T7 warm temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, extending southward on the uplands of Africa, South Africa and India

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Assam, Botswana, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Maluku, Mauritius, Mozambique, Nepal, New Guinea, New South Wales, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Réunion, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Swaziland, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Transcaucasus, Turkey, West Himalaya, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Maryland, Virginia

    Oplismenus undulatifolius (Ard.) P.Beauv. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Holst, C. [2496], Tanzania K000257027 syntype
    Ayers, R. A. [1488], Swaziland K000257028 Unknown type material
    s.coll. [1653], India K000674318 isotype

    First published in Ess. Agrostogr.: 54, 168, 171 (1812)

    Accepted by

    • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15, 2: 482 (1817), non P. Beauv. (1812), nom. nud.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0