1. Family: Celastraceae R.Br.
    1. Genus: Catha Forssk. ex Scop.
      1. Catha edulis (Vahl) Endl.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Eritrea to S. Africa, Yemen.

    [FZ]

    Celastraceae, N. K. Robson. Flora Zambesiaca 2:2. 1966

    Habit
    Tree 2–15(25) m. high; stems pale grey-green and flattened when young, becoming vinous red, terete.
    Leaves
    Leaves with lamina dark green or greyish-green and glossy above, paler beneath, (3·7)5·5–11 × (0·8)1·5–4·5(6) cm., oblong to elliptic or obovate, acute to acuminate or more rarely obtuse at the apex, with margin markedly glandular-crenulate-denticulate, cuneate to angustate at the base, coriaceous or subcoriaceous, with densely reticulate venation more prominent below than above; petiole 3–10 mm. long; stipules c. 2 mm. long, triangular-acicular.
    Flowers
    Flowers ?; peduncle 6–12 mm. long; bracts 0·5–1 mm. long, acicular to triangular.
    Calyx
    Sepals 0·5–0·7 mm. long, broadly ovate to semicircular, rounded, with margin ciliate-fimbriate.
    Corolla
    Petals 1–1·5 mm. long, elliptic-oblong, with margin ciliolate and paler in colour (at least when dry).
    Pistil
    Ovary broadly ovoid; styles short.
    Fruits
    Capsule red, 6–10 mm. long, narrowly oblong-3-gonous, pendulous.
    Seeds
    Seeds rugose-papillose, with a basal wing.
    [FTEA]

    Celastraceae, N.K.B. Robson, N. Hallé, B. Mathew & R. Blakelock†. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1994

    Habit
    Tree 2–15(–25) m. high; branches pale grey-green and flattened when young, becoming vinous red, terete.
    Leaves
    Leaf-lamina dark green or greyish green and glossy above, paler beneath, oblong to elliptic or obovate, (3.7–)5.5–11 × (0.8–)1.5–4.5(–6) cm., acute to acuminate or more rarely obtuse at the apex, with margin markedly glandular-crenulate-denticulate, cuneate to attenuate at the base, coriaceous or subcoriaceous, with densely reticulate venation more prominent beneath than above; petiole 3–10 mm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes 1–2.3 cm. long, rather dense, with peduncle 6–12 mm. long; pedicels very short or up to 2 mm. long; flowers many in each cyme, 2–3 mm. in diameter.
    Calyx
    Sepals broadly ovate to semicircular, rounded, 0.5–0.7 mm. long, with margin ciliate-fimbriate.
    Corolla
    Petals elliptic-oblong, 1–1.5 mm. long, sessile, with margin ciliolate and paler in colour.
    Stamens
    Stamens shorter than petals, with filaments 0.7–1 mm. long.
    Disc
    Disc 1–1.5 mm. in diameter.
    Pistil
    Ovary broadly ovoid; styles less than 0.5 mm. long, slender; stigmas small.
    Fruits
    Capsule red, narrowly oblong-3-gonous, 6–10 mm. long, pendulous.
    Seeds
    Seeds dark brown, rugose-papillose, with narrow wing 2–2.5 times as long.
    Figures
    Fig. 5.
    Habitat
    Evergreen submontane or medium altitude forest, usually near the margins, or in woodland often on rocky hills; 1100–1800(–2400) m.
    Distribution
    K1 K3 K4 K5 K6 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U1 U2 SW. Arabia and throughout eastern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa (Cape Province), west to Angola

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Cape Provinces, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mozambique, Northern Provinces, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Hawaii, Somalia, Yemen

    Catha edulis (Vahl) Endl. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 30, 2010 Banze, A. [63], Mozambique K000546052
    Jan 1, 1956 Quartin-Dillom [s.n.], Ethiopia K000035785
    Codd, L.E. [7702], South Africa K000035788 holotype
    Schimper [1478], Ethiopia K000035786
    Schimper [649], Ethiopia K000035787
    Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000035790
    Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000035792
    Burchell, W.J. [5520], South Africa K000035789
    Baur, R. [1124], South Africa K000035791
    Harris, T. [32], Mozambique K000545034
    Chase, M. [34472] K000543555

    First published in Ench. Bot.: 575 (1841)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
    • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Robson, N.K.B. & al. (1994). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Celastraceae: 1-78.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Exell, A.W., Fernandes, A. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1966). Flora Zambesiaca 2(2): 353-653. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Exell, A.W., Fernandes, A. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1966). Flora Zambesiaca 2(2): 353-653. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • N. Robson in Fl. Ethiopia 3: 340, fig. 108.4 (1990).
    • N. Robson & Sousa, Fl. Moçamb. 48: 29 (1969).
    • Verdc. & Trump, Common Poisonous Pl. E. Afr.: 97 (1969).
    • N. Robson in Flora Zambesiaca 2: 381 (1966).
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 134 (1961).
    • R. Wilczek in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 9: 126 (1960).
    • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 78 (1952).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 123 (1949).
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 1: 501 (1948).
    • Loes. in A. Engler & K. Prantl, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, ed. 2, 20b: 154 (1942).
    • Battiscombe, A Descriptive Catalogue of Some of the Common Trees and Woody Plants of Kenya Colony p. 73 (1926).
    • Loes. & Engl. in A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(2): 231, fig. 114 (1921).
    • Loes. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile B: 255, 321 (1895)
    • Loes. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 246 (1895).
    • Oliv. in Flora of Tropical Africa 1: 365 (1868).
    • Endl., Enchirid. Bot.: 575 (1841).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/