1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Elymus L.
      1. Elymus violaceus (Hornem.) J.Feilberg

        This species is accepted, and its native range is E. Siberia to Russian Far East, N. America.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Culms 20-50 cm long. Culm-internodes smooth. Culm-nodes glabrous. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 0.5 mm long. Leaf-blades 4-8 cm long; 5-6 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 1; single; bilateral; 4-10 cm long. Rhachis flattened. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis. Rhachis internodes linear; 10-16 mm long. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 2-4 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic to oblong; laterally compressed; 10-16 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating above glumes but not between florets.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2-4 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic to oblong; laterally compressed; 10-16 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating above glumes but not between florets.
    Glume
    Glumes collateral; persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; 7-7.5 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 5 -veined. Lower glume apex acute; muticous. Upper glume lanceolate; 7-7.5 mm long; 1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 5 -veined. Upper glume apex acute; muticous.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate to oblong; 7 mm long; 3 mm wide; coriaceous; purple; 5 -veined. Lemma lateral veins obscure. Lemma apex obtuse; muticous, or mucronate. Palea 8 mm long. Palea keels ciliolate. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Distribution
    North America: Subarctic.
    Reference
    Triticeae. Neuman 2011.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Rhizomes absent. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 50-110 cm long; 6-9 -noded. Culm-nodes glabrous. Leaf-sheaths mostly shorter than adjacent culm internode; pilose; with reflexed hairs. Leaf-sheath auricles falcate; 1 mm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1 mm long; erose. Leaf-blades 3-12 mm wide; glaucous. Leaf-blade surface scaberulous; rough adaxially; glabrous to pilose.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 1; single; erect; bilateral; 4-12 cm long; 20-30 mm wide. Rhachis flattened; ciliate on margins. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis. Rhachis internodes linear; 3-6 mm long. Spikelets appressed; in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 3-5(-6) fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic to oblong; laterally compressed; 10-15 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 3-5(-6) fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic to oblong; laterally compressed; 10-15 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; exceeding apex of florets. Lower glume subulate; 12-22 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; 0-1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume subulate; 12-22 mm long; 0-1 -veined. Upper glume primary vein absent, or distinct. Upper glume lateral veins absent.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma elliptic; 8-10 mm long; coriaceous; 5 -veined. Lemma surface scabrous. Lemma apex awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn straight, or curved; 8-22 mm long overall. Palea 7-8 mm long. Palea apex obtuse. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 2.5-4 mm long.
    Distribution
    North America: Mexico.
    Reference
    Triticeae. Fl N Amer 2007.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 40-110 cm long. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface, or puberulous. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1 mm long. Leaf-blades 2-6 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface smooth, or scaberulous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 1; single; bilateral; 6-15 cm long. Rhachis flattened. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; 0.5 their length apart. Rhachis internodes linear; 6-20 mm long. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 4-7 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic to oblong; laterally compressed; 12-24 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating above glumes but not between florets. Rhachilla internodes 3 mm long.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 4-7 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic to oblong; laterally compressed; 12-24 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating above glumes but not between florets. Rhachilla internodes 3 mm long.
    Glume
    Glumes collateral; persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; 9-15 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 3-7 -veined. Lower glume apex acute; muticous, or mucronate. Upper glume lanceolate; 9-15 mm long; 1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 3-7 -veined. Upper glume apex acute; muticous, or mucronate.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate to oblong; 8-13 mm long; coriaceous; 5-7 -veined. Lemma lateral veins obscure. Lemma apex acute; muticous, or awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn 1-3 mm long overall. Palea 1 length of lemma. Palea keels scabrous. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; membranous. Anthers 3. Stigmas 2. Ovary pubescent on apex.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp.
    Distribution
    Europe: eastern. Asia-temperate: Siberia, Soviet far east, Soviet Middle Asia, and Mongolia. North America: Subarctic, western Canada, eastern Canada, northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, south-central USA, and Mexico.
    Reference
    Triticeae. Gr Tex 1993.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Rhizomes absent. Culms decumbent; 20-50 cm long; 1-2 -noded. Culm-nodes glabrous. Leaves mostly basal. Leaf-sheaths mostly shorter than adjacent culm internode; glabrous on surface. Leaf-sheath auricles falcate; 0.5-1 mm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 0.2-0.5 mm long; erose. Leaf-blades 1-5 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface ribbed; grooved adaxially.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 1; single; flexuous; bilateral; 5-15 cm long; 7-12 mm wide. Rhachis flattened; ciliate on margins. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; lax. Rhachis internodes linear; 5-15 mm long. Spikelets ascending, or spreading; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 3-7 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic to oblong; laterally compressed; 15-20 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes glabrous.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 3-7 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic to oblong; laterally compressed; 15-20 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes glabrous.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; 6-9 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 3 -veined. Lower glume apex awned; 1 -awned. Lower glume awn 3-10 mm long. Upper glume lanceolate; 6-9 mm long; 0.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 3 -veined. Upper glume awned; 1 -awned. Upper glume awn 3-10 mm long.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma elliptic; 12-16 mm long; coriaceous; 5 -veined. Lemma surface smooth, or asperulous. Lemma apex dentate; 2 -fid; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn from a sinus; curved; spreading; 15-30 mm long overall. Palea 1 length of lemma. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 2-3.5 mm long.
    Distribution
    North America: northwest USA and southwest .
    Reference
    Triticeae. Fl N Amer 2007.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alaska, Alberta, Amur, Arizona, British Columbia, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Greenland, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kentucky, Khabarovsk, Kuril Is., Labrador, Magadan, Maine, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northwest Territorie, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ohio, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Québec, Rhode I., Sakhalin, Saskatchewan, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yakutskiya, Yukon

    Introduced into:

    Altay, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Buryatiya, Central European Rus, Chita, Czechoslovakia, East European Russia, Iceland, Irkutsk, Kazakhstan, Krasnoyarsk, Northwest European R, Norway, South European Russi, Tuva, Ukraine, West Siberia

    Elymus violaceus (Hornem.) J.Feilberg appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Vahl, T. [s.n.], Greenland K000674993
    Pringle, C. G. [s.n.], New Hampshire K000674994
    Malte, M. O. [119244], Québec Elymus subsecundus K001065420
    Malte, M. O. [119244], Québec Elymus subsecundus K001065421
    Malte, M. O. [107855], British Columbia Elymus subsecundus K001065422
    Malte, M. O. [s.n.], British Columbia Elymus subsecundus K001065423
    Malte, M. O. [119246], Québec Elymus subsecundus K001065424
    Malte, M. O. [107819], Alberta Elymus subsecundus K001065425
    Malte, M. O. [119239], Québec Elymus subsecundus K001065426
    Malte, M. O. [108309], British Columbia Elymus subsecundus K001065427
    Pringle, C.G. [6639], Mexico Elymus pringlei K000308547
    Pringle, C.G. [11222], Hidalgo Elymus pringlei K000308548
    Richardson [s.n.] Elymus trachycaulus K000308103 isotype
    Richards [s.n.] Elymus trachycaulus K000308102 isotype
    Baker, C.F. [111], Colorado Elymus trachycaulus K000674999
    Richardson, J. [s.n.], Canada Elymus trachycaulus K000674996 Unknown type material
    Vasey, G. [s.n.], Colorado Elymus trachycaulus K000674998
    Collinson, P. [358] Elymus trachycaulus K000674995
    Pullen, W. J. S. [177], Canada Elymus trachycaulus K000674997
    Eggleston, W. W. [2177], Vermont Elymus trachycaulus K000675000

    First published in Meddel. Grønland, Biosci. 15: 12 (1984)

    Not accepted by

    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Elymus trachycaulus.]

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Marhold, K. (ed.) (2012). IAPT/IOPB chromosome data 13 Taxon 61: 889-902.
    • Sheremetova, S.A., Ebel, A.L. & Buko, T.E. (2011). Supplement to the flora of Kemerovo region since 2001 till 2010 Turczaninowia 14(1): 65-74.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Malyschev, L.I. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Siberia 2: 1-362. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0