1. Family: Apocynaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Asclepias L.
      1. Asclepias curassavica L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to Tropical America.

    [FTEA]

    Apocynaceae (part 2), David Goyder, Timothy Harris, Siro Masinde, Ulrich Meve, Johan Venter. Flora of Tropical East Africa, 2012

    Habit
    Short-lived perennial herb with a single stem arising from fibrous rootstock.
    Stem
    Stems erect, 0.5–2 m, simple or branched, young shoots minutely pubescent, becoming glabrous with age; interpetiolar line often prominent
    Leaves
    Leaves with petiole 5–15 mm long, glabrous or minutely puberulent; lamina narrowly oblong, 6–13 × 1–3 cm, apex attenuate, base narrowly cuneate, subglabrous except for the minutely puberulous midrib and margins
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences extra-axillary, umbelliform with (3–)5–10 flowers.
    Peduncles
    Peduncles (2–)3–5 cm long, glabrous or minutely puberulent.
    Bracts
    Bracts filiform, 1–2 mm long, pubescent.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels 1–1.5 cm long, glabrous or minutely pubescent.
    Calyx
    Sepals narrowly oblong to triangular, 2–2.5 × 0.5–1 mm, acute, pubescent.
    Corolla
    Corolla strongly reflexed, bright red; lobes narrowly obovate, 6–7 × 2–3 mm, acute, glabrous or minutely pubescent
    Gynostegium
    Gynostegial stipe slender, 1.5–2 mm long
    Corona
    Corona lobes orange or yellow, arising at the top of the gynostegial stipe, 3–4 × 1.5 mm, ± 1.5 times the height of the column, somewhat fleshy and semi-cylindrical, not strongly compressed, a falcate tooth ± 2 mm long arising from the cavity of the lobe and arching over the head of the column
    Anthers
    Anther wings 1.8 mm long, the margin slightly convex, and with a minute notch at the base of the guide rail; corpusculum brown, ovoid, ± 0.3 × 0.15 mm; translator arms ± 0.4 mm long, slender, geniculate near attachment to pollinia.
    Pollinia
    Pollinia oblanceolate, ± 0.9 × 0.3 mm, strongly flattened
    Style
    Stylar head ± flat
    Fruits
    Follicle erect on erect pedicel, 6–7 × 1 cm, fusiform and tapering towards both towards the base and apex, smooth, glabrous
    Seeds
    Seeds broadly ovate, ± 5 × 3.5 mm, flattened, with a marginal rim ± 1 mm wide, smooth or verrucose sparsely; coma ± 2.5 cm long.
    Ecology
    Moist forest or grassland; 0–1800 m
    Distribution
    Range: Pantropical weed, native to the neotropics, cultivated and naturalised widely in Old World tropics Flora districts: U2 K7 T3 T7 Z
    [FWTA]

    Asclepiadaceae, A. A. Bullock. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    An erect, shrubby herb up to 5 ft. high
    Inflorescences
    Umbelliform inflorescences of flowers scarlet reflexed corolla-lobes and yellow corona.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Cayman Is., Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Galápagos, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panamá, Peru, Puerto Rico, Southwest Caribbean, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Ascension, Assam, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Burkina, California, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Chagos Archipelago, Chile North, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, Cook Is., Cyprus, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Fiji, Florida, Gabon, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Greece, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Hawaii, India, Iraq, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, Kriti, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Louisiana, Madeira, Malawi, Malaya, Marianas, Marshall Is., Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nepal, New Caledonia, New South Wales, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Paraguay, Philippines, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., South Australia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Tonga, Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Australia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Asclepias curassavica L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2010 Henicka, G.S. [268], Mato Grosso K000652671
    Feb 1, 2009 George, M. [123947], Malaysia K000610290
    Feb 1, 2009 Gregson [142], Malaysia K000610287
    Apr 25, 2005 Lemos, J.R. [263], Brazil K001060864
    Nov 1, 1997 Damineli, E.G. [s.n.], Brazil K000095042
    Jun 8, 1995 Menezes, E. [71], Brazil K000095036
    Oct 1, 1988 Williams, L.O. [8036], Brazil K000095035
    Jan 1, 1983 Harley, R.M. [19483], Brazil K000095045
    Jan 1, 1976 Prance, G.T. [16736], Brazil K000095033
    Jan 1, 1975 Irwin, H.S. [7488], Brazil K000095032
    Jan 1, 1973 Anderson, W.R. [37153], Brazil K000095031
    Jan 1, 1961 Fonseca, C.G. [22], Brazil K000095027
    Jan 1, 1926 Dusén, P. [14187], Brazil K000095054
    Harley, R.M. [17448], Brazil K000095044
    Harley, R.M. [19997], Brazil K000095046
    Hinton, G.B. [10007], Guerrero K000465479
    Hinton, G.B. [8987], México State K000465480
    Hinton, G.B. [7133], México State K000465483
    Hinton, G.B. [426], México State K000465484
    Hinton, G.B. [1668], México State K000465485
    Hinton, G.B. [5657], Guerrero K000465486
    Hinton, G.B. [288], Mexico K000465487
    Hinton, G.B. [565], Mexico K000465488
    Hinton, G.B. [9480], Guerrero K000465481
    Hinton, G.B. [10981], Guerrero K000465482
    Leach, L.C. [1470], Angola 33504.000
    Brower, L.P. ["C"], Uganda 30195.000
    Martinelli, G. [10087], Brazil K000095041
    Irwin, H.S. [2307], Brazil K000095028
    Silva, M.B. [39], Brazil K000095048
    Lima, L. [230], Brazil K000095047
    Krukoff, B.A. [1797], Brazil K000095051
    Robert, A. [s.n.], Brazil K000095053
    Milne [s.n.], Brazil K000095055
    Gillivray, J.M. [319], Brazil K000095056
    Gillivray, J.M. [319/B], Brazil K000095059
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8253], Bangladesh K001125048
    Pires, J.M. [52377], Brazil K000095029
    Colchester [s.n.], Brazil K000095060
    Secco, R.S. [335], Brazil K000095038
    Secco, R.S. [335], Brazil K000095039
    Ribeiro, B.G.S. [2109], Brazil K000095043
    Boaz [s.n.], Brazil K000095058
    s.coll. [s.n.] 33291.000
    Mexia, Y. [4159], Brazil K000095049
    Heringer, F.P. [4345], Brazil K000095040
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8253] K001125044
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8253] K001125045
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8253] K001125046
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8253] K001125047
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K000095030
    Burchell [1575], Brazil K000095057
    Glaziou [12960], Brazil K000095063
    Freire, G.V. [48], Brazil K000095034
    Bourke-Barrowes, D. [17], Brazil K000095050
    B. Smith, L. [1421], Brazil K000095052
    Hilaire, A.St. [s.n.], Brazil K000095064

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 215 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
    • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
    • Wiriadinata, H., Girmansyah, D., Hunter, J.M., Hoover, W.S. & Kartawinata, K. (2013). Floristic study of West Sumbawa, Indonesia Reinwardtia 13: 391-404.
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Pérez-Farrera, M.Á., Martínez-Camilo, R., Martínez-Meléndez, N., Farrera-Sarmiento, O. & Maza-Villalobos, S. (2012). Listado florístico del Cerro Quetzal (Polígono III) de la reserva de la biosfera El Triunfo, Chiapas, México Botanical Sciences 90: 113-142.
    • Goyder, S., Harris, T., Masinde, S., Meve, U. & Venter, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Apocynaceae(2): 1-530.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Rapini, A. (2010). Revisitando as Asclepiadoideae (Apocynaceae) da Cadeia do Espiniaço Boletim de Botânica da Universidade de São Paulo 28: 97-123.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2009). Flora Mesoamericana 4(1): 1-855. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Goyder, D.J. (2009). A synopsis of Asclepias (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae) in tropical Africa Kew Bulletin 64: 369-399.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. & al. (eds.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 6: 1-408. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Autrey, J.C., Bosser, J. & Ferguson, I.K. (eds.) (2005). Flore des Mascareignes 121-126: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Jagtap, A.P. & Singh, N.P. (1999). Fascicles of Flora of India 24: 1-332. Botanical Survey of India, New Delhi.
    • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
    • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
    • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1996). Flora of Australia 28: 1-335. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(1): 1-346.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 1-529. MIM, Deurne.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • Castle, G.E. in Friedmann, F. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. ORSTOM éditions.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Iwatsuki, K., Yamazaki, T., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (1993). Flora of Japan IIIa: 1-482. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
    • Smith, A.C. (1988). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 4: 1-377. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
    • Greuter, W., Burdet, H.M. & Long, G. (eds.) in Greuter, W., Burdet, H.M., & Long, G. (1984). Med-checklist 3: Dicotyledones (Convolvulaceae - Labiatae) 1: 1-330. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques, Ville de Genève.
    • Peekel, P.G. (1984). Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for Naturalists: 1-638. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea.
    • Ali, S.I. (1983). Flora of Pakistan 150: 1-65. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1983). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 4: 1-532. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Townsend, C.C. & Guest, E. (eds.) (1980). Flora of Iraq 4(1): 1-628. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
    • Berhaut, J. (1971). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 1: 1-626. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
    • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
    • Guillaumin, A. (1948). Compendium de la Flore Phanérogamique des Nouvelles Hébrides Annales de l'Institut Botanico-Geologique Colonial de Marseille, VI, 5-6: 1-56.
    • Christopherson, E. (1935). Flowering Plants of Samoa Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 128: 1-221.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Berhaut Fl. Sén. 88, 85.
    • F.T.A. 4, 1: 328
    • Sp. Pl. 215 (1753)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Wiriadinata, H., Girmansyah, D., Hunter, J.M., Hoover, W.S. & Kartawinata, K. (2013). Floristic study of West Sumbawa, Indonesia Reinwardtia 13: 391-404.
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Goyder, D.J. (2009). A synopsis of Asclepias (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae) in tropical Africa Kew Bulletin 64: 369-399.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Autrey, J.C., Bosser, J. & Ferguson, I.K. (eds.) (2005). Flore des Mascareignes 121-126: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Jagtap, A.P. & Singh, N.P. (1999). Fascicles of Flora of India 24: 1-332. Botanical Survey of India, New Delhi.
    • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1996). Flora of Australia 28: 1-335. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • Castle, G.E. in Friedmann, F. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. ORSTOM éditions.
    • Iwatsuki, K., Yamazaki, T., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (1993). Flora of Japan IIIa: 1-482. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • H?, P.-H. (1993). Câyc? Vi?tnam. An Illustrated flora of Vietnam 2(2): 611-1191. Pham-hoang Ho, Montréal.
    • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Greuter, W., Burdet, H.M. & Long, G. (eds.) in Greuter, W., Burdet, H.M., & Long, G. (1984). Med-checklist 3: Dicotyledones (Convolvulaceae - Labiatae) 1: 1-330. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques, Ville de Genève.
    • Peekel, P.G. (1984). Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for Naturalists: 1-638. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1983). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 4: 1-532. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
    • Townsend, C.C. & Guest, E. (eds.) (1980). Flora of Iraq 4(1): 1-628. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
    • Berhaut, J. (1971). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 1: 1-626. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
    • Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C. in Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R. C. (1965). Flora of Java 2: 1-641. N.V.P. Noordhoff, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
    • Craib, W.G. & Ker, A.F.G. in Craib, W.G. (1951). Florae Siamensis enumeratio 3(1): 1-100. Siam society, Bangkok, Thailand.
    • Guillaumin, A. (1948). Compendium de la Flore Phanérogamique des Nouvelles Hébrides Annales de l'Institut Botanico-Geologique Colonial de Marseille, VI, 5-6: 1-56.
    • Masamune, G. (1942). Enumeratio phanerogamarum Bornearum: 1-739. Taihoku, Formosa.
    • Christopherson, E. (1935). Flowering Plants of Samoa Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 128: 1-221.
    • Merrill, E.D. (1923). An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants 3: 1-628. Bureau of Science, Manila.
    • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • F.W.T.A. ed. 2, 2: 92 (1963).

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Neotropikey
    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0