1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Urochloa P.Beauv.
      1. Urochloa maxima (Jacq.) R.D.Webster

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, W. Indian Ocean, Arabian Peninsula.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 40-80 cm long. Culm-internodes elliptical in section; distally glabrous. Culm-nodes glabrous. Lateral branches lacking, or sparse. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface. Ligule a ciliolate membrane; truncate. Leaf-blades 15-40 cm long; 2-10 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface glabrous; hairless throughout, or except near base.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; ovate; 10-25 cm long. Primary panicle branches ascending, or spreading; 5-15 cm long. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels filiform; flexuous; 5-10 mm long.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; dorsally compressed; acute; 2.5-3 mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; dorsally compressed; acute; 2.5-3 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma; gaping. Lower glume orbicular; 0.24-0.33 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 1-3 -veined. Lower glume surface pubescent. Lower glume apex obtuse; muticous, or mucronate. Upper glume ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 5 -veined. Upper glume surface pubescent. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; oblong; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5-7 -veined; pubescent; acute. Fertile lemma oblong; dorsally compressed; 2.5-3 mm long; indurate; pallid; without keel. Lemma surface rugose. Lemma margins convolute. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea involute; indurate.
    Distribution
    Africa: western Indian ocean.
    Reference
    Paniceae. Gr Madag 1997.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes short. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 1.5 mm diam.; rooting from lower nodes. Culm-internodes smooth; distally glabrous. Lateral branches ample. Leaf-sheaths loose; striately veined; glabrous on surface. Ligule a ciliolate membrane. Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate; 20-25 cm long; 4-5 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface glabrous; hairless except near base. Leaf-blade margins smooth, or scaberulous. Leaf-blade apex acuminate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Peduncle 5-20 cm long. Panicle open; ovate; loose; 10-16 cm long; 2.5-3 cm wide. Primary panicle branches distant; 4-5 -nate; whorled at lower nodes; simple, or sparsely divided. Panicle branches capillary; flexuous. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels flexuous; unequal; 1.5-5 mm long.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic, or oblong; dorsally compressed; 2.5-2.8 mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic, or oblong; dorsally compressed; 2.5-2.8 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 0.7 mm long; 0.25-0.33 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 5 -veined. Lower glume surface tuberculate. Lower glume apex emarginate, or obtuse. Upper glume ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels. Upper glume surface tuberculate. Upper glume apex obtuse.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous. Fertile lemma elliptic; dorsally compressed; 2-2.2 mm long; indurate; without keel. Lemma surface punctate; rugulose. Lemma margins involute. Palea involute; indurate.
    Distribution
    Africa: western Indian ocean.
    Reference
    Paniceae. Camus 2007.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial, or annual (rarely); caespitose. Rhizomes short. Butt sheaths pubescent. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; robust, or of moderate stature, or slender; (25-)75-200(-450) cm long; without nodal roots, or rooting from lower nodes. Culm-internodes distally glabrous, or hispid, or pilose. Culm-nodes glabrous, or bearded. Leaf-sheaths wider than blade at the collar, or as wide as blade at the collar. Ligule a ciliate membrane. Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate; (6-)12-40(-100) cm long; (4-)12-35 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface glabrous, or pubescent, or pilose. Leaf-blade apex acuminate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; oblong, or pyramidal; 12-45(-60) cm long. Primary panicle branches ascending, or spreading; whorled at lower nodes. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels straight, or flexuous; glabrous, or bearing a few hairs; hairy at tip.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; dorsally compressed; obtuse, or acute; (2.5-)3-4.5(-5) mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; dorsally compressed; obtuse, or acute; (2.5-)3-4.5(-5) mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 0.33-0.5 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 3 -veined. Lower glume surface glabrous, or pubescent. Lower glume apex obtuse, or acute. Upper glume ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 5 -veined. Upper glume surface glabrous, or pubescent. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male, or barren; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5 -veined; without grooves; glabrous, or pubescent; acute. Fertile lemma oblong; dorsally compressed; 2.5-5 mm long; indurate; pallid; without keel. Lemma surface rugose. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea involute; indurate. Palea surface rugose.
    Distribution
    Europe: southeastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, middle Atlantic ocean, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. North America: south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
    Reference
    Paniceae. FTEA.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Aldabra, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Namibia, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Andaman Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Ascension, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, California, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central American Pac, Chagos Archipelago, China Southeast, Colombia, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Easter Is., Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Georgia, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Louisiana, Madeira, Malaya, Mali, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Myanmar, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Zealand North, Nicaragua, Niue, Norfolk Is., Oklahoma, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Samoa, Sicilia, Society Is., Solomon Is., Southwest Caribbean, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Taiwan, Texas, Thailand, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turks-Caicos Is., Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Windward Is.

    Common Names

    English
    Brown top buffel-grass, Bush buffalo grass, Common buffalo grass, Guinea grass

    Urochloa maxima (Jacq.) R.D.Webster appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Hinton, G.B. [4823], México State K000476075
    Jun 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [1545], Cameroon Panicum maximum K000107874
    Jan 1, 1973 Irwin, H.S. [9259], Brazil Panicum maximum K001059509
    Nov 1, 1935 unknown [s.n.], Guinea Panicum maximum K000257020 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1913 Dusén, P. [14023], Brazil Panicum maximum K001059514
    Chevalier, A. [9625], Central African Republic Panicum maximum K000255586
    Chevalier, A. [9543], Central African Republic Panicum maximum K000255585
    Harley, R.M. [16628], Bahia Panicum maximum K000003776
    Harley, R.M. [16628], Bahia Panicum maximum K000003775
    Philcox, D. [3158], Brazil Panicum maximum K001059507
    Maitland, T.D. [332], Cameroon Panicum maximum K000182334
    Maitland, T.D. [152], Cameroon Panicum maximum K000182335
    Maitland, T.D. [15], Cameroon Panicum maximum K000182336
    Kerr, A.F.G. [s.n.], Thailand Panicum maximum K000620760
    Banks, J. [s.n.], Jamaica Panicum maximum K000309161
    Thomas [123], Kenya Panicum maximum K000255576 syntype
    Pohl [1152], Brazil Panicum maximum K001059522
    Smitinand, T. [4841], Thailand Panicum maximum K000682752
    Humbert, H. [28804], Madagascar Panicum maximum K001096176 isotype
    Spruce, R. [s.n.], Peru Panicum maximum K000201669
    Vogel [128], Sierra Leone Panicum maximum K000257021 Unknown type material
    Irwin, H.S. [5531], Brazil Panicum maximum K001059508
    Eiten, G. [10318], Brazil Panicum maximum K001059506
    Swainson [s.n.], Brazil Panicum maximum K001059519
    Swainson [s.n.], Brazil Panicum maximum K001059521
    Riedel [952], Brazil Panicum maximum K001059515
    Holst, C. [8716], Tanzania Panicum maximum K000255575 syntype
    Burchell, W.J. [1474], Brazil Panicum maximum K001059518
    Burchell, W.J. [1711], Brazil Panicum maximum K001059523
    Drège, South Africa Panicum maximum K000255541 isosyntype
    Menyhart [898], Mozambique Panicum maximum K000282439
    Laegaard, S. [21751], Thailand Panicum maximum K000682751
    Thronning [s.n.], Guinea Panicum maximum K000257022 Unknown type material
    Thronning [s.n.], Guinea Panicum maximum K000257023 Unknown type material
    Hoehne, W. [12697], Brazil Panicum maximum K001059511
    Tweedie, J. [s.n.], Brazil Panicum maximum K001059517
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [5437], Brazil Panicum maximum K001059510
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [4333], Brazil Panicum maximum K001059513
    Gaudichaud-Beaupre, C. [s.n.], Brazil Panicum maximum K001059516
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 8715] Panicum maximum K001131359
    Hatschbach, G.G. [14083], Brazil Panicum maximum K001059512
    Brunt, M.A. [1040], Cameroon Panicum maximum K000182333
    Chuml, H. [246], Cameroon Panicum maximum K000182332
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8715] Panicum maximum K001131353
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8715] Panicum maximum K001131354
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8715] Panicum maximum K001131355
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8715] Panicum maximum K001131356
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8715] Panicum maximum K001131357
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8715] Panicum maximum K001131358
    s.coll. [s.n.] Panicum maximum K001059520

    First published in Austral. Paniceae: 241 (1987)

    Not accepted by

    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Panicum maximum.]
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. [Cited as Panicum maximum.]

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Reddy, G.V.P. (2011). Survey of invasive plants on Guam and identification of the 20 most widespread Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 41: 263-274.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Suzuki, M., Taufatofua, P. & Koyama, T. (2007). New records of plants from Tonga Makinoa, n.s., 6: 25-62.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • H?, P.-H. (2000). Câyc? Vi?tnam. An Illustrated flora of Vietnam, ed. 2, 3: 1-1020. Pham-hoang Ho, Montréal.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
    • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Renvoize, S.A. (1980). The Flora of Aldabra and neighbouring islands: 1-358. Crown, London.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Packer, J.E. (1974). Ascension Handbook. A concise guide to Ascension Island South Atlantic ed. 2 Packer, Georgetown.
    • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.
    • Masamune, G. (1942). Enumeratio phanerogamarum Bornearum: 1-739. Taihoku, Formosa.
    • Hubbard, C.E. & Vaughan, R.E. (1940). Grasses of Mauritius and Rodriguez: 1-128. Crown Agents for the Colonies, London.
    • Robyns, W. (1934). Flore Agrostologique du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 2: 9-386. Goemaere, Bruxelles.
    • de Cordemoy, E.J. (1895). Flore de l'ile de la Réunion: 1-574. Librairie des sciences naturelles Paul Klincksieck, Paris.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/