1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Lolium L.
      1. Lolium giganteum (L.) Darbysh.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Europe to S. Central China, Bioko.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 45-150 cm long; 2-5 -noded. Culm-nodes purple. Leaf-sheaths without keel; smooth, or scaberulous; glabrous on surface. Leaf-sheath oral hairs lacking. Leaf-sheath auricles falcate. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1-2.5 mm long. Leaf-blades drooping; 30-60 cm long; 6-18 mm wide. Leaf-blade margins scaberulous. Leaf-blade apex attenuate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; lanceolate, or ovate; effuse; nodding; 10-50 cm long. Primary panicle branches 2 -nate; bearing 3-8 fertile spikelets on each lower branch (on shorter branch). Panicle branches flexuous; angular; scabrous. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels 1.5-6 mm long.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 3-10 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate, or oblong; laterally compressed; 8-20 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes definite.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 3-10 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate, or oblong; laterally compressed; 8-20 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes definite.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; dissimilar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; 4-7 mm long; 0.8-0.9 length of upper glume; chartaceous; much thinner on margins; without keels; 1-3 -veined. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume lanceolate; 5-8 mm long; 0.8-0.9 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; with membranous margins; without keels; 3 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma elliptic; 6-9 mm long; chartaceous; of similar consistency on margins; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma surface scaberulous. Lemma apex acute; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn straight, or flexuous; 10-18 mm long overall; limb scaberulous. Palea 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels scaberulous. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 2.5-3 mm long. Ovary glabrous.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; fusiform; glabrous. Embryo 0.2 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear; 0.9 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Asia-temperate: Siberia, Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, and China. Asia-tropical: India.
    Reference
    Poeae. CEH.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Altay, Austria, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Central European Rus, China South-Central, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East European Russia, East Himalaya, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hungary, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Krasnoyarsk, Krym, Nepal, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Connecticut, Michigan, New York, Ontario, Québec

    Lolium giganteum (L.) Darbysh. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Apr 1, 1976 Duthie, J.F. [7609], India Festuca gigantea K000032137 Unknown type material
    s.coll. [s.n.] Festuca gigantea K000913246

    First published in Novon 3: 241 (1993)

    Not accepted by

    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Festuca gigantea.]

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Malyschev, L.I. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Siberia 2: 1-362. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Ovczinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1957). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 1: 1-547. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
    • Pavlov, N.V. (ed.) (1956). Flora Kazakhstana 1: 1-354. Alma-Ata, Izd-vo Akademii nauk Kazakhskoi SSR.
    • Roshevitz, R.J. & al. (eds.) (1950). Flora Kirgizskoi SSR 2: 1-315. Frunze : Izd-vo KirgizFAN SSSR.
    • Merkodovich, N.A. (ed.) (1941). Flora Uzbekistana 1: 1-566. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0