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  1. Family: Rubiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Spermacoce L.
      1. Spermacoce exilis (L.O.Williams) C.D.Adams ex W.C.Burger & C.M.Taylor

        This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Mexico to Tropical America.

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 100 - 1850 m.; Andes, Llanura del Caribe, Pacífico, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Magdalena.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [FZ]

    Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 5:1. 1989

    Habit
    A weak erect, decumbent or procumbent annual herb, usually ± well-branched, 3–40 cm. tall, with fine fibrous roots; stems with sparse to fairly dense crisped hairs on the ± wing-like prominent angles.
    Leaves
    Leaf blades 0.4–3.8 x 0.25–1.8 cm., elliptic to elliptic-lanceolate, rounded to ± acute at the apex, concavely narrowed into the petiole at the base, glabrous on both surfaces save for short marginal hairs or ± pubescent on the main nerve beneath; petiole 0–8 mm. long, with scattered hairs; stipules with base 2 mm. long, bearing c. 7 fimbriae 1–3 mm. long.
    Flowers
    Flowers in small few-flowered clusters at many of the nodes, attaining 3–6 mm. in diam. in the fruiting state; stipule-like bracteoles with fimbriae 1.8–2 mm. long.
    Calyx
    Calyx tube transversely oblong, 0.5 mm. long; lobes 2(4), 0.6–0.8 mm. long, ciliate.
    Corolla
    Corolla white; tube 0.3 mm. long; lobes 0.35 x 0.3–0.4 mm., triangular, with a few short hairs inside.
    Anthers
    Anthers situated just above the sinuses of the corolla lobes.
    Pistil
    Style c. 0.2 mm. long; stigma 0.2 mm. wide.
    Fruits
    Fruit 1 x 0.8 x 0.5–0.7 mm., oblong, compressed, finely transversely wrinkled and very shortly pubescent.
    Seeds
    Seeds chestnut-brown, 0.7–0.8 x 0.4 x 0.3–0.35 mm., oblong-ellipsoid, strongly reticulate with raised ribs, the foveae elongated in the direction of the short axis.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil West-Central, Central American Pac, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Benin, Borneo, Burundi, Cabinda, Cameroon, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, China Southeast, Christmas I., Congo, East Himalaya, Fiji, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Hawaii, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mauritius, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Philippines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vietnam, Zambia, Zaïre

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Spermacoce exilis (L.O.Williams) C.D.Adams ex W.C.Burger & C.M.Taylor appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2011 Du, N.V. et al. [HNK 3262], Vietnam K000174698
    Nov 1, 2008 Cheek, M. [13538], Cameroon K000580418
    Mar 14, 2005 De Vogel [6135], Sulawesi K000172997
    Mar 1, 2005 Barter [s.n.], Sierra Leone K000173919
    Jan 1, 2005 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [6898], Cameroon K000436567
    Jan 1, 2005 Thompson, S.A. [1469], Cameroon K000460111
    Aug 1, 1994 Trail, J.W.H. [439], Brazil K001076182
    Aug 1, 1994 Trail, J.W.H. [438], Brazil K001076184
    Aug 1, 1994 Trail, J.W.H. [441], Brazil K001076185
    Aug 1, 1994 Gardner, G. [2189], Brazil K001076192
    Aug 1, 1994 Burchell, W.J. [9219], Brazil K001076190
    Aug 1, 1994 Burchell, W.J. [3006-2], Brazil K001076191
    Aug 1, 1994 Burchell, W.J. [7669], Brazil K001076193
    Aug 1, 1994 Burchell, W.J. [4181], Brazil K001076196
    Aug 1, 1994 Lowe, J. [3981], Brazil K001076183
    Aug 1, 1994 Prance, G.T. [4316], Brazil K001076186
    Aug 1, 1994 s.coll. [2374], Brazil K001076189
    Aug 1, 1994 Spruce, R. [2374], Brazil K001076187
    Craven, L. [49], Kalimantan K000172994
    Bourgeau, E. [2624], Mexico K001076188
    Burchell, W.J. [5655], Brazil K001076194
    Burchell, W.J. [5655], Brazil K001076195
    Don [s.n.] K000422898
    Vogel, T. [s.n.] K000422896
    Heudelot [558] K000422897
    Van Valkenburg [JVV1303], Kalimantan K000172993
    Asik, M. [SAN 128430], Sabah K000172992
    Oct 1, 2001 Ghogue, J.-P. [1], Cameroon Spermacoce mauritiana K000026346

    Bibliography

    First published in Fieldiana, Bot., n.s., 33: 316 (1993)

    Accepted by

    • Middleton, J.D. (ed.) (2019). Flora of Singapore 13: 1-654. Singapore Botanic Gardens.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2014). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 7: 1-840. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2011). Flora of China 19: 1-884. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Figueiredo, E. (2007). The Rubiaceae of Cabinda (Angola) Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 154: 455-495.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Beaman, J.H. & Anderson, C. (2004). The Plants of Mount Kinabalu 5: 1-609. Natural history publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.

    Not accepted by

    • Berry, P.E., Yatskievych, K. & Holst, B.K. (eds.) in Steyermark, J., Berry, P.E., Holts, B.K. (eds). (2004). Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana 8: 1-874. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis. [Cited as Borreria repens.]
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Spermacoce gracilis.]

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2014). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 7: 1-840. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Lozada Pérez, L. & Borhidi, A. (2013). Flora de Guerrero 57: 1-55. Facultade de Ciencias, UNAM.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2011). Flora of China 19: 1-884. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • GBIF (2008- continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Borhidi, A. (2006). Rubiáceas de México: 1-512. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.
    • Ruhsam, M in Ruhsam, M. (2005). Survey of all the Rubiaceae specimens at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Beaman, J.H. & Anderson, C. (2004). The Plants of Mount Kinabalu 5: 1-609. Natural history publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0